HYBRID EVENT: You can participate in person at Madrid, Spain or Virtually from your home or work.

5th Edition of Cardiology World Conference

September 5-7, 2024 | Madrid, Spain

September 05 -07, 2024 | Madrid, Spain
Cardio 2022

Rajini Samuel

Rajini Samuel, Speaker at Cardiovascular Conference
Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research institute, India
Title : Application Of Cardiac Vector Hypotheses In Novel ECG Interpretation Method


Electrocardiography (ECG) is one of the oldest diagnostic tool in medicine yet its interpretation remains an arduous task. A lot of advancements had come in the ECG machine, yet the basic physics principle of ECG is not clearly understood.  The concept of Einthoven triangle and the cardiac vector describing the electrical activity of the heart was first described by Einthoven even before a century but he never published a complete detailed description of the same. After many decades, the complete Heart-Lead vector relationship and Einthoven’s equilateral triangle hypotheses was published by the current author in previous research articles. The present study summarizes the clinical applications of cardiac vector theory to be applied at the bed side for ECG interpretation.

Voltage recorded in a particular lead is the result of dot product between the lead vector (measured in meter) and the cardiac vector measured in volt/meter. The heart is situated in the center of the electric field which it generates. The two upper limbs and the left lower limb are the extensions of its electrical field. Thus each cardiac wave (P, QRS,T) can be represented in the form of circles. All circles (see the diameter) should be formed in the left lower quadrant except QRS which can go up to -30 degree. When the angle between the ‘QRS’ and ‘T’ circles widen it usually denotes ischemia. Larger the size of a circle, higher will be the voltage. No circle should be formed during ST-segment since it is an iso-electric period. Formation of circle and it’s magnitude during the ST-segment indicate the amount of myocardial injury. Thus by seeing the size and location of the circles in the hex-axial reference system, interpretation can be done easily.

Many of the medical students and even most of the specialist doctors find difficult to understand the concept of electrocardiogram. ECG interpretation plays a vital role in emergency conditions. The early diagnosis can reduce the morbidity and mortality of the number one killer disease in the world. The quicker and proper interpretation of ECG report will result in saving millions of cardiac patients.

So, the combination of the 12-lead ECG with this resultant cardiac vector represented by circle provide the optimum approach to ECG interpretation.

Coronary artery disease remains a great threat to the humankind and also poses a major challenge to the scientific community in the 21st century. The concept of Einthoven triangle and cardiac vector hypotheses forms the most important part in the understanding and interpretation of ECG which when properly and quickly applied at the right time for the patient care results in saving millions of lives.

KEYWORDS: Heart vector, Lead vector, Einthoven triangle, Novel ECG interpretation

Audience learn the following from this presentation:

  • Physics Principle of ECG using vector concepts.
  • Formulation of Cardiac Vector theory and its application in ECG Interpretation
  • Novel ECG Interpretation
    Understanding and quicker Interpretation of ECG helps in saving the life of the cardiac patients



Dr.T.Rajini Samuel did MBBS (2004 -2010) in Chengalpattu Government Medical College, Tamil Nadu, India. He worked in Venkateshwara Hospitals, Chennai to complete the ECG project. He had proposed cardiac vector hypothesis and Novel ECG interpretation method. He completed M.D Biochemistry  in Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospitals, Chennai , in 2015,focused  research on ABG interpretation  and presently working as an Associate Professor in Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai. He had published 36 research articles, 3 books and one chapter. He received Indian Achievers Award 2021 for Excellence in Innovation awarded by the Indian Achievers Forum.